International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-11-10T07:27:19+00:00 Prof. Mohamd O. Barakat Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends (IJSSCFRT) is an open access International Journal for scientists and researchers to publish their scientific papers in Social Sciences related fields. IJSSCFRT plays its role as a refereed international journal to publish research results conducted by researchers.</p> <p>This journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process within 4 weeks. For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="">About the Journal</a> page. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">All IJSSCFRT published papers in Social Sciences will be available for scientific readers for free; no fees are required to download published papers in this international journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"> </p> Determination of Production Parameters and Socio-demographic Profile of Whey Producers 2023-01-26T08:52:05+00:00 J. Glago Koranteng Achiamaa A-A N.W. Chabi K. Tona K.A. Gbogbo <p>Despite the multiple nutritional values, mainly linked to lactose, proteins, calcium and phosphorus contained in whey, it is thrown into the immediate environment after the production of Fulani “Wagashi” cheese, thus constituting a source of pollution. This activity was initiated to study the production parameters and socio-demographic profiles of whey producers to promote it in animal feed. Appropriate information was collected by individual interviews with 60 female producers and 30 breeders in cattle farms in the maritime region of Togo to assess various parameters such as general characteristics of the producers, Fresh milk temperature, typology of producers, process and production duration. The snowball method with a participatory approach was used. Multiple correspondence factor analysis (MCFA) and ascending hierarchical classification (AHC) methods were used for analyses of the data obtained. The results showed that all of the producers were women, 100% illiterate and predominantly Fulani (96.7%). Three groups I, II and III of producers were identified. The manufacturing process consisted of seven inherent steps. The temperature (T<sub>0</sub>) of fresh milk on the farms just after milking was between 36.62 ± 0.29 to 36.68 ± 0.31°C. The maximum cooking temperature and duration were 69.07 ± 5.19°C and 52.66 ± 13.08 minutes respectively. The price of fresh milk in these farms was 300 FCFA/liter. Depending on the distance, it rose to 429 ± 62.55 FCFA at the places of production. In group II, 80% of the whey was discarded into the environment. A recycling policy is necessary in order to valorize whey.</p> 2023-10-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends Unveiling the Past: Delving into the Local History of Mati City, Davao Oriental, Philippines 2023-10-12T02:39:08+00:00 Ardin Odoy <p>This study delves into the local history of Mati, tracing its evolution from a humble municipality to a thriving city in Davao Oriental. A significant aspect of this investigation lies in its implications for the national government. A focal point of the investigation is the historical background of Mati during various colonial eras, notably under Spanish, American, and Japanese rule. The Spanish presence in Mati dates back to the 16th century when St. Francis Xavier visited the region, specifically the barangay known as <em>Kabuaya</em> or <em>Cabuaya</em>. However, immediate settlement attempts were hampered by the threat posed by the Moros. It was only after the defeat of Moro ruler Datu Bago by Spanish conquistador Don Jose Oyanguren during the 17th century that Mati officially became a regular town or pueblo, marking the end of the Moro influence in the Davao territory. The American colonial era significantly influenced Mati's political and economic landscape. In 1903, under Organic Act No. 21, Mati was established as a regular municipality, bringing with it a new governmental system. The Americans, exercising control over politics and the economy, altered landownership, reducing native landowners to tenants. During World War II, Mati, like much of the Philippines, fell under Japanese occupation. Interestingly, despite their presence, there are no recorded reports of Japanese atrocities in Mati. Post-war, the Japanese influence dwindled. After enduring the successive waves of colonization, Mati achieved city status in 2007, a process marked by challenges. Its journey to cityhood was fraught with setbacks, losing and regaining city status multiple times. In 2011, the Supreme Court's ruling solidified Mati's cityhood, bringing forth new governance opportunities and challenges. The local populace anticipates improved services and employment prospects under the city's administration. Further, this study employs a meticulous descriptive historical methodology, utilizing primary sources and key informant interviews. It integrates both external and internal analysis of available data.</p> 2023-11-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends Factors Influencing Employee’s Innovative Self-Efficacy in Architecture Firms in Shaanxi Province, China: A Pilot Testing 2023-10-27T04:38:19+00:00 Liu Qian Janaka Low <p>In an era of rapid technological advancement and heightened competition, fostering a culture of innovation within organizations has become paramount. Innovative self-efficacy, the belief in one's capability to generate novel ideas and effect change, is a vital aspect of employee innovation. This pilot study aims to investigate the factors influencing innovative self-efficacy among employees in architecture firms located in Shaanxi Province, China. By examining variables such as job complexity, work environment, job satisfaction, job interdependence, job value, and discipline value, the study seeks to shed light on the determinants of innovative self-efficacy in this context. The findings of this research will not only contribute to the growing body of knowledge on innovation in architecture firms but will also pave the way for more comprehensive future studies in this area.</p> 2023-11-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends Validation of Learning Engagement Questionnaires: A Pilot Testing Study in Private Colleges and Universities in Xi'an, China 2023-09-28T06:51:07+00:00 Wei Shu Le Chin Nyuk Sang <p>This research study is designed to validate a set of questionnaires measuring learning engagement among students in private colleges and universities in Xi'an, China. Learning engagement is a critical factor influencing academic performance, and the reliability and validity of assessment tools are essential for meaningful research and effective educational interventions. Through a pilot testing approach, this study seeks to assess the psychometric properties of the questionnaires and ensure their suitability for future research in this context. The findings will provide valuable insights into the validity and reliability of these assessment tools in the specific setting of private higher education in Xi'an.</p> 2023-10-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends A Phenomenological Study on Teachers' Beliefs on Teaching Evaluation Practice for Space Design Studies in Higher Education Institutions at Xi'an China 2023-10-16T04:06:38+00:00 Lai Fan Wong Teck Foo <p>This study employs a qualitative phenomenological emic research approach to explore the teaching beliefs and evaluation practices of instructors in space design courses (SDCs) within higher education institutions (HEIs) in Xi'an, China. In the context of globalization, professionalization, and large-scale transnational education, it investigates how instructors perceive and implement teaching assessments and what beliefs and values are reflected in their teaching practices. Through in-depth interviews with 17 spatial design course instructors, this research reveals four major themes: Teaching Assessment and Improvement, Instructors' Teaching Beliefs, Validity and Methods of Teaching Assessment, and Teaching Resources and Assessment Materials. Findings indicate that instructors generally consider teaching assessment to play a crucial role in enhancing teaching quality but hold varying perspectives on its validity and long-term impact. Additionally, instructors' teaching beliefs are diverse and heavily influenced by their personal philosophies, experiences, and professional backgrounds. These beliefs manifest and are applied in various ways in teaching practices, providing theoretical support and guidance for instructors' teaching decisions. The findings of this study offer a fresh perspective for understanding and improving the teaching of spatial design courses, providing insights for further theoretical research and teaching practices.</p> 2023-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends Trading Narratives: Oral Histories of the Binidayan Market Hub 2023-06-22T03:18:00+00:00 Asnaidah Sarip Raihan A. Yusoph Ardin J. Odoy <p>This study explores the Trading Narratives of the people of Binidayan. The researchers used oral historical methodology to capture the rich narratives and lived experiences of individuals who have witnessed the evolution and growth of the Binidayan Market Hub. By engaging with local residents, traders, and other relevant stakeholders, the study seeks to unearth valuable insights and personal accounts that might otherwise remain untold. This methodology provides a unique lens through which to explore the multifaceted nature of the market hub and its impact on the community. In addition, this study sheds light on the origins of the Padian in Binidayan, tracing its development and transformation over time. Through a historical analysis of the trading areas, it seeks to uncover the factors that contributed to the establishment of the market hub. By examining the economic and social contexts, the study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of how the Padian emerged as a central hub for economic activities and social interactions in the province of Lanao del Sur.</p> <p> Moreover, the research investigates the dynamics of local market system in the context of the Binidayan Market Hub. It explores the various stakeholders involved, including traders, farmers, artisans, and consumers, and examines their roles and interactions within the market system. The study analyzes the patterns of trade, commodities exchanged, and the mechanisms of pricing and exchange that governed the market transactions. By examining the social and economic relationships within the market system, the research elucidates the complex network of connections that sustained the Padian as a thriving economic center.Furthermore, this study highlights the multifaceted contributions of the Padian to the municipality and its people. It investigates the economic impact of the market hub, including its role in generating employment opportunities, supporting local entrepreneurship, and facilitating trade networks. Additionally, it explores the social significance of the Padian, such as its role in fostering cultural exchange, community cohesion, and social interactions. The research also examines the ways in which the market hub has contributed to the overall development and well-being of the municipality and its people.</p> 2023-11-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends Maternal Education and Child's Nutritional Status in Nepal 2023-10-13T07:38:35+00:00 Aanshi Paudel <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research examines the relationship between maternal education and three measures of child nutrition - stunting, underweight, and wasting - using data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) conducted in 2016 and 2022. The study also measures the influence of other factors such as the wealth index of the household, type of place of residence, and sex of the household head, on child nutritional status. Employing box and whisker plots, relationships among variables are visually portrayed. An empirical model is constructed to ascertain the extent of connection between maternal education, household wealth index, residence type, sex of household head, and the child nutritional status. The results showed that maternal education is negatively correlated with all three measures of a child's nutritional status. </span></p> <p><br style="font-weight: 400;" /><br style="font-weight: 400;" /></p> 2023-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends Unlocking the Employment Potential of Foreign Direct Investment and Challenges in Local Workforce Integration in Tanzania: A Case Study of Kibaha District 2023-11-10T07:27:19+00:00 Philoteo Akitanda Felician Mutasa <p>This study determined the contribution of FDI in creating employment opportunities in Kibaha district, Coast Region -Tanzania. Both probability and non-probability sampling were used to obtain 84 respondents for survey and 8 key informants for in-depth interviews. Quantitative data were analyzed through SPSS whereas qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. Findings indicate that FDI play a great contribution or significant role in creating employment opportunities in Tanzania. From the findings, 58.3% of respondents shows that FDI provides employment on a large scale; 33.3% shows that FDI contributes employment on an average or moderate scale, and the remaining 8.4% shows it contributes on a small scale. Furthermore, the results elucidate various type of employment opportunities offered by FDI which are direct and indirect involvement. Under direct employments there were permanent base contract (50%); casual labor (25%) and temporary basis/seasonal employment (25%). Indirect employment was also mode of employment on FDI where by cover those citizens who were employed by respective FDIs as a result of their presence near the area. Includes motorcyclists who transport first-category workers and employees, as well as food service providers. Several challenges that hinder FDI in employing Local citizens namely were also determined which were; Language barriers; lack of enough skilled labor; lack of trust among local employees and job dropout without prior information from the employee. As the study has been acknowledged that FDI have critical significant contribution on creating employments opportunity in Tanzania. </p> <p>The number of youths who are not employed in both government and local private sectors can be employed in FDI firms Therefore, a need for encouraging private sectors especial FDI to invest in the country is very important. Good environment for attracting FDI in the country is highly needed.</p> 2023-11-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends Reparative Regional Cooperation for Climate Change in Northeast Asia 2023-10-06T05:29:16+00:00 Xiuli Chen Junhui Wang Chinami Iwai Maura Elina Kannel Kyung-young Chung <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;In Northeast Asia, historical injustice appears&nbsp;to have built&nbsp;a virulent&nbsp;loop&nbsp;of judging&nbsp;and pleading. Conquering the historical&nbsp;hostility has turned to&nbsp;one of the most important challenges&nbsp;in the future of the region.&nbsp;This study develops&nbsp;a theoretical framework&nbsp;of a reparative&nbsp;regional cooperation&nbsp;for climate change with technological advance while&nbsp;coping with natural disasters&nbsp;and biological risks in&nbsp;Northeast Asia(NEA)&nbsp;by conducting a secondary research&nbsp;through case studies.&nbsp;The research underscores the urgent need for enhanced regional cooperation in Northeast Asia to effectively manage future natural disasters and biological risks, proposing a comprehensive framework that includes the establishment of specialty headquarters in each country and the adoption of a Northeast Asia Security Regime. It also highlights the unique specialties of China, Japan, and South Korea in managing wildfires, earthquakes, and biological risks respectively, suggesting these strengths be leveraged in a cooperative system for improved regional security, resilience&nbsp;and environmental management. For climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction, technological advancement, and ideological reconciliation in Northeast Asia, both the natural and social dimensions of these crucial environmental challenges&nbsp;are addressed learning from history knowledge and practice for discussing&nbsp;the applicability of neoliberal institutionalism and the security&nbsp;cooperation for security and social changes&nbsp;in Northeast Asia.</p> 2023-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends A Mixed Method Study on Evaluation Methodology of Teaching Practice Evaluation System at Higher Education Institution in Xi'an China 2023-10-16T04:13:46+00:00 Lai Fan Wong Teck Foo <p>This study explores the assessment methods and feedback mechanisms of the Teaching Practice Evaluation System (TPES) in Spatial Design Courses (SDCs) at higher education institutions in Xi'an, China. Employing a mixed-methods research approach with concurrent triangulation design strategy that combines quantitative surveys, qualitative interviews, and analysis of relevant teaching evaluation documents, this study aims to address two core research questions: (1) What assessment methods are employed in SDCs' teaching evaluation? (2) To what extent do professional educators receive and utilize assessment feedback from TPES? Findings from the study indicate that mixed assessment methods (i.e., combining qualitative and quantitative assessments) are widely used and endorsed by teachers in SDCs' TPES. However, there are challenges in the implementation of feedback mechanisms, such as some teachers not receiving feedback or not effectively applying it for teaching improvement. Based on these findings, this study offers practical recommendations and directions for future research to further enhance and develop teaching assessment methods and feedback mechanisms in higher education institutions.</p> 2023-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends The Influence of Divide and Rule Political Strategy on Teachers’ Commitment to Work in Selected Private Primary Schools in Namutumba Town Council 2023-07-16T16:30:59+00:00 Yusufu M. Nagaya <p>This research examined the influence of divide and rule political strategy on teachers’ commitment to work in Selected Private Primary Schools in Namutumba Town Council in Uganda.<br>It was revealed that head teachers' divide and rule political strategy had a positive and moderate significant influence on teachers’ commitment to work (? = 0.472, N = 162, p = .000 &lt; 0.05). It is thus being concluded that when head teachers divide and rule their administrative staff, it may serve a double-faced perspective. In some cases, and schools, the outcome may be positive while in other circumstances the outcome may be negative. Obviously, head teachers cannot do without such a political strategy yet its influence on administrative staff performance is also undoubted.</p> 2023-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends The Contribution of the Ancient Kirat Civilization in Nepal and its Consequences of Decline 2023-10-13T13:17:08+00:00 Gyanu Maya Rai Yang Zhuhui <p>Nepal is a multi-lingual, multi-religious, and multi-cultural South Asian mountain country. The source of its civilization is the Kirat dynasty and the sacred book or scripture of the Kirat religion: ‘Mundum’, which had been founded by the indigenous Kirat people and had rich social and cultural values. Kirat is a collective term for the indigenous people of Nepal. Kirat Dynasty had long ruled the country and left a rich legacy; this includes equal treatment of all ethnic groups, religions, and members of both sexes to maintain the spirit of social harmony. In the late period of the Kirat Dynasty, the Indian Brahmans in the north introduced caste discrimination and oppression of the Dalits and so- called untouchables, forced the mountain people to convert to Hinduism and upgrading Khasa to the national language of Nepal. The language and religious cultures of about 60 indigenous peoples have disappeared from history during this process. Kirat religion also tended to decline. It is the 21st century, but Nepal still has hidden caste and gender discrimination. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify that the historical narrative of Gopal as the source of Nepali civilization in mainstream academic circles today has distorted due to the lack of information about the ancient and original Kirat civilization. The real context of literature and history of Nepal is still obscured. Based on the oral history and social memory of the mountain peoples, this paper presents the characteristics of ancient Kirat civilization and religion, reveals the status of its creation and carrying heave and the country's prosperity is closely related, and improves the social and cultural status of the indigenous people, ensuring the fair inheritance of cultures of all ethnic groups is the only way for sustainable development.</p> 2023-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends