International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends <p style="text-align: justify;">The International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends (IJSSCFRT) is an open access International Journal for scientists and researchers to publish their scientific papers in Social Sciences related fields. IJSSCFRT plays its role as a refereed international journal to publish research results conducted by researchers.</p> <p>This journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process within 4 weeks. For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="">About the Journal</a> page. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">All IJSSCFRT published papers in Social Sciences will be available for scientific readers for free; no fees are required to download published papers in this international journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"> </p> Mohammad Nassar for Researches (MNFR) en-US International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2790-4008 <p>Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the<a title="Copyright_Notice" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> following terms.</a></p> Evaluation of the Implementation of Learner-Centered Approach in Teaching and Learning Process in Tanzania: A Systematic Review <p>In the current (21st century) world, skilled and competent human resources are inevitable for any nation. Reforms in education are one of the strategies for building the human capital that is infused in this modern world. Tanzania adopted the learner-centred approach in all education systems to comply with these social and economic development changes. This study aims to review research trends and obstacles to implementing the learner-centred approach to teaching and learning in Tanzania, encouraging additional study in areas with known research gaps. The study examined 20 articles from electronic journals published between 2016 and 2023. The bibliometric and content analysis designs were used to select articles from Google Scholar. The study found more studies on implementing the learner-centred approach in Tanzania. The mixed research method and the case study research design were found to inform more of the reviewed articles. The effectiveness of the learner-centred approach was the least searched area. The most studied education level was found to be secondary schools. Moreover, the study found that teachers prefer teacher-centred rather than learner-centred approaches. Furthermore, insufficient teaching and learning materials and in-service professional development challenges are primarily observed in implementing a learner-centred approach in Tanzania. These gaps are crucial for decision-makers who need to identify research gaps and develop strategies to overcome obstacles that prevent the adoption of a learner-centred approach in Tanzania.</p> Geofrey Mwanahanja Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 20 1 225 239 Determination of Production Parameters and Socio-demographic Profile of Whey Producers <p>Despite the multiple nutritional values, mainly linked to lactose, proteins, calcium and phosphorus contained in whey, it is thrown into the immediate environment after the production of Fulani “Wagashi” cheese, thus constituting a source of pollution. This activity was initiated to study the production parameters and socio-demographic profiles of whey producers to promote it in animal feed. Appropriate information was collected by individual interviews with 60 female producers and 30 breeders in cattle farms in the maritime region of Togo to assess various parameters such as general characteristics of the producers, Fresh milk temperature, typology of producers, process and production duration. The snowball method with a participatory approach was used. Multiple correspondence factor analysis (MCFA) and ascending hierarchical classification (AHC) methods were used for analyses of the data obtained. The results showed that all of the producers were women, 100% illiterate and predominantly Fulani (96.7%). Three groups I, II and III of producers were identified. The manufacturing process consisted of seven inherent steps. The temperature (T<sub>0</sub>) of fresh milk on the farms just after milking was between 36.62 ± 0.29 to 36.68 ± 0.31°C. The maximum cooking temperature and duration were 69.07 ± 5.19°C and 52.66 ± 13.08 minutes respectively. The price of fresh milk in these farms was 300 FCFA/liter. Depending on the distance, it rose to 429 ± 62.55 FCFA at the places of production. In group II, 80% of the whey was discarded into the environment. A recycling policy is necessary in order to valorize whey.</p> J. Glago Koranteng Achiamaa A-A N.W. Chabi K. Tona K.A. Gbogbo Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-10-26 2023-10-26 20 1 12 32 Validation of Learning Engagement Questionnaires: A Pilot Testing Study in Private Colleges and Universities in Xi'an, China <p>This research study is designed to validate a set of questionnaires measuring learning engagement among students in private colleges and universities in Xi'an, China. Learning engagement is a critical factor influencing academic performance, and the reliability and validity of assessment tools are essential for meaningful research and effective educational interventions. Through a pilot testing approach, this study seeks to assess the psychometric properties of the questionnaires and ensure their suitability for future research in this context. The findings will provide valuable insights into the validity and reliability of these assessment tools in the specific setting of private higher education in Xi'an.</p> Wei Shu Le Chin Nyuk Sang Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-10-22 2023-10-22 20 1 1 11 A Phenomenological Study on Teachers' Beliefs on Teaching Evaluation Practice for Space Design Studies in Higher Education Institutions at Xi'an China <p>This study employs a qualitative phenomenological emic research approach to explore the teaching beliefs and evaluation practices of instructors in space design courses (SDCs) within higher education institutions (HEIs) in Xi'an, China. In the context of globalization, professionalization, and large-scale transnational education, it investigates how instructors perceive and implement teaching assessments and what beliefs and values are reflected in their teaching practices. Through in-depth interviews with 17 spatial design course instructors, this research reveals four major themes: Teaching Assessment and Improvement, Instructors' Teaching Beliefs, Validity and Methods of Teaching Assessment, and Teaching Resources and Assessment Materials. Findings indicate that instructors generally consider teaching assessment to play a crucial role in enhancing teaching quality but hold varying perspectives on its validity and long-term impact. Additionally, instructors' teaching beliefs are diverse and heavily influenced by their personal philosophies, experiences, and professional backgrounds. These beliefs manifest and are applied in various ways in teaching practices, providing theoretical support and guidance for instructors' teaching decisions. The findings of this study offer a fresh perspective for understanding and improving the teaching of spatial design courses, providing insights for further theoretical research and teaching practices.</p> Lai Fan Wong Teck Foo Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-10-30 2023-10-30 20 1 44 54 Self-Regulation as a Predictor of Psychological Well-being of Undergraduates in Southwestern Nigeria <p>The study identified the levels of psychological well-being and self-regulation of undergraduates in Southwestern Nigeria and investigated the predictive ability of self-regulation on undergraduate students’ psychological well-being in the study area. These were with a view to providing empirical information on the relationship between self-regulation and psychological well-being of undergraduate students in Southwestern Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The population for the study comprised 378,982 undergraduate students in Southwestern Nigeria. Sawtooth Software was used in selecting the sample size. The sample comprised 1563 undergraduates selected using a multistage sampling procedure. Two adapted instruments were employed to gather data from the respondents. They were Questionnaire on Psychological Well-being Scale (PWBS) and Self-regulation Scale (SRS). Data collected were analysed using frequency counts, percentages and linear regression analysis. The results showed that 8.6%, 77.5%, and 13.9% of the undergraduates had low, moderate, and high psychological well-being, respectively. The results of the study also showed that self-regulation was a significant predictor of psychological well-being (R-value = 0.530, F-value = 610.584, p &lt; 0.05). The study concluded that self-regulation was capable of enhancing psychological well-being</p> Tofunmi Matthew Babalola Oluwasayo Ebenezer Adewunmi Aghogho Gloria Okunola Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-12-10 2023-12-10 20 1 190 200 The Influence of Divide and Rule Political Strategy on Teachers’ Commitment to Work in Selected Private Primary Schools in Namutumba Town Council <p>This research examined the influence of divide and rule political strategy on teachers’ commitment to work in Selected Private Primary Schools in Namutumba Town Council in Uganda.<br>It was revealed that head teachers' divide and rule political strategy had a positive and moderate significant influence on teachers’ commitment to work (? = 0.472, N = 162, p = .000 &lt; 0.05). It is thus being concluded that when head teachers divide and rule their administrative staff, it may serve a double-faced perspective. In some cases, and schools, the outcome may be positive while in other circumstances the outcome may be negative. Obviously, head teachers cannot do without such a political strategy yet its influence on administrative staff performance is also undoubted.</p> Yusufu M. Nagaya Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-10-30 2023-10-30 20 1 83 102 Maternal Education and Child's Nutritional Status in Nepal <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This research examines the relationship between maternal education and three measures of child nutrition - stunting, underweight, and wasting - using data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) conducted in 2016 and 2022. The study also measures the influence of other factors such as the wealth index of the household, type of place of residence, and sex of the household head, on child nutritional status. Employing box and whisker plots, relationships among variables are visually portrayed. An empirical model is constructed to ascertain the extent of connection between maternal education, household wealth index, residence type, sex of household head, and the child nutritional status. The results showed that maternal education is negatively correlated with all three measures of a child's nutritional status. </span></p> <p><br style="font-weight: 400;" /><br style="font-weight: 400;" /></p> Aanshi Paudel Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 20 1 126 146 Factors Influencing Employee’s Innovative Self-Efficacy in Architecture Firms in Shaanxi Province, China: A Pilot Testing <p>In an era of rapid technological advancement and heightened competition, fostering a culture of innovation within organizations has become paramount. Innovative self-efficacy, the belief in one's capability to generate novel ideas and effect change, is a vital aspect of employee innovation. This pilot study aims to investigate the factors influencing innovative self-efficacy among employees in architecture firms located in Shaanxi Province, China. By examining variables such as job complexity, work environment, job satisfaction, job interdependence, job value, and discipline value, the study seeks to shed light on the determinants of innovative self-efficacy in this context. The findings of this research will not only contribute to the growing body of knowledge on innovation in architecture firms but will also pave the way for more comprehensive future studies in this area.</p> Liu Qian Janaka Low Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-11-05 2023-11-05 20 1 103 113 Factors Influencing Double-Qualified Teachers of Undergraduate Higher Vocational Education: A Pilot Testing <p>This study investigates the factors influencing 'Double-Qualified' teachers in undergraduate higher vocational education. It conducted a pilot testing phase to assess the reliability and validity of the research questionnaire, ensuring the development of robust research instruments. The reliability testing involved surveying 50 participants and calculating the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, resulting in a high value of 0.989, indicating strong questionnaire reliability and internal consistency. Content validation was performed through expert judgment, with multiple experts in the field assessing the research tool's appropriateness and adequacy, aligning well with empirical standards and enhancing its validity. Construct validation uncovered significant correlations between work culture and various professional attributes, highlighting the influential role of a positive work culture in shaping professional identity, work role demands, personalized learning, self-efficacy, awareness of new roles, knowledge and experience transfer, occupational commitment, work role transition competency, and social support. The successful completion of the pilot study positions this research to contribute significantly to the understanding and support of 'Double-Qualified' teachers in undergraduate higher vocational education. The insights gained are expected to inform policy decisions, improve educational practices, and ultimately enhance vocational education in higher education. Further research in this area has the potential to address the evolving needs of educators in vocational colleges and elevate the quality of higher vocational education.</p> Xuke Wang Janaka Low Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 20 1 283 296 Major Flood Occurrence Modelling for Nata, Botswana <p>For an accurate assessment of flood risk, taking into account the relationship between heavy rainfall and storm surge can be crucial. There are several statistical techniques for modeling such severe dependence, but it is unknown how well they function in terms of calculating the probability that infrequent river floods will exceed a given threshold. The Gumbel mixed model, a bivariate extreme value distribution model with Gumbel marginals, is suggested in this research in order to explore the joint probability distribution of connected flood peaks and volumes as well as the joint probability distribution of correlated flood volumes and durations. The joint distributions, conditional probability functions, and appropriate return periods are obtained from the marginal distributions of these random variables. This study examines how the Gumbel distribution equation model and rainfall data set can be utilized to analyze flood frequency and flood extreme ratio of any given spatial domain in order to underline the significance of employing the model in the geo-analysis of diverse environmental phenomena. For the building of water projects in ungauged locations without records of rainfall intensity or climate conditions, it is essential to produce suitable rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves. Hydrological engineering planning, design, and management problems frequently call for a thorough understanding of flood event characteristics, such as flood peak, volume, and duration. Flood frequency analysis often focuses on flood peak values and so provides a limited assessment of flood events. This study looked at a 31 years span of rainfall data and found out that according to the gumbel distribution annual precipitation of 63.28mm is most likely to occurevery year, and annual precipitation of 300.59mm has a 100% chance of occurring every 32 years. It can be deduced from the graphs that there is 3% of 301 mm rainfall occurrence. The lower percentage exceedance probability of 97% shows that there are higher chances of having 63mm. This method is appropriate for estimating discharge while designing flood control structures.</p> Kelly Masoto Easther Mosase Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-12-10 2023-12-10 20 1 201 213 Reparative Regional Cooperation for Climate Change in Northeast Asia <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;In Northeast Asia, historical injustice appears&nbsp;to have built&nbsp;a virulent&nbsp;loop&nbsp;of judging&nbsp;and pleading. Conquering the historical&nbsp;hostility has turned to&nbsp;one of the most important challenges&nbsp;in the future of the region.&nbsp;This study develops&nbsp;a theoretical framework&nbsp;of a reparative&nbsp;regional cooperation&nbsp;for climate change with technological advance while&nbsp;coping with natural disasters&nbsp;and biological risks in&nbsp;Northeast Asia(NEA)&nbsp;by conducting a secondary research&nbsp;through case studies.&nbsp;The research underscores the urgent need for enhanced regional cooperation in Northeast Asia to effectively manage future natural disasters and biological risks, proposing a comprehensive framework that includes the establishment of specialty headquarters in each country and the adoption of a Northeast Asia Security Regime. It also highlights the unique specialties of China, Japan, and South Korea in managing wildfires, earthquakes, and biological risks respectively, suggesting these strengths be leveraged in a cooperative system for improved regional security, resilience&nbsp;and environmental management. For climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction, technological advancement, and ideological reconciliation in Northeast Asia, both the natural and social dimensions of these crucial environmental challenges&nbsp;are addressed learning from history knowledge and practice for discussing&nbsp;the applicability of neoliberal institutionalism and the security&nbsp;cooperation for security and social changes&nbsp;in Northeast Asia.</p> Xiuli Chen Junhui Wang Chinami Iwai Maura Elina Kannel Kyung-young Chung Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-10-30 2023-10-30 20 1 55 82 A Mixed Method Study on Evaluation Methodology of Teaching Practice Evaluation System at Higher Education Institution in Xi'an China <p>This study explores the assessment methods and feedback mechanisms of the Teaching Practice Evaluation System (TPES) in Spatial Design Courses (SDCs) at higher education institutions in Xi'an, China. Employing a mixed-methods research approach with concurrent triangulation design strategy that combines quantitative surveys, qualitative interviews, and analysis of relevant teaching evaluation documents, this study aims to address two core research questions: (1) What assessment methods are employed in SDCs' teaching evaluation? (2) To what extent do professional educators receive and utilize assessment feedback from TPES? Findings from the study indicate that mixed assessment methods (i.e., combining qualitative and quantitative assessments) are widely used and endorsed by teachers in SDCs' TPES. However, there are challenges in the implementation of feedback mechanisms, such as some teachers not receiving feedback or not effectively applying it for teaching improvement. Based on these findings, this study offers practical recommendations and directions for future research to further enhance and develop teaching assessment methods and feedback mechanisms in higher education institutions.</p> Lai Fan Wong Teck Foo Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-10-30 2023-10-30 20 1 33 43 Transformation of the State Civil Apparatus Communication System in Public Services in Sukamakmur District Bogor Regency <p>Advances in the field of information communication and technologies have enabled people to access information and knowledge from various sources, in all parts of the world, so that physical "separation" no longer limits the space for thought and creativity in advancing people's lives. However, it is a fact that internet network facilities in Indonesia are still focused on urban areas. Based on this, it is very necessary to transform the communication system of the State Civil Service through information communication and technologies in public services in Sukamakmur District. Communication is an integral part of human life from birth to death, therefore communication is defined as the process of exchanging information between individuals. The research objectives are: Identifying the ICT services used, explaining views on ICT devices; Describe the ability to use ICT systems. The research design is descriptive qualitative. The sampling in the research is in two or more stages. The data collected is primary and secondary data. Data collection techniques are observation, interviews and FGD. Data analysis through content analysis and Likert scale. The research results show that most state civil servants prefer internet cafes, DISC and internet cafe services. On the other hand, they use computers, WA and telephone. The services produced are administrative services, goods services and services. One of the important elements is transparency, non-discrimination, non-closure, no social polarization, fairness to all without distinction of religion, ethnicity, race and class. The State Civil Apparatus is very capable of operating ICT and quite capable of operating ICT. This means that there is success in utilizing ICT tools</p> Desi Hasbiyah Abubakar Iskandar Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-12-17 2023-12-17 20 1 214 224 Investigating the Relationship between the Sources of the News Media and Audiences’ Gratification: Balochistan Case Study <p>The primary purpose of journalism is to create knowledgeable people and societies. This can only be possible when news sources tell the truth and earn the trust of the public through people-centric reporting. Previous reports show that the news media in many societies around the world failed to satisfy users by broadcasting human-centric programming. Even news sources tried to mislead and misinform the public, thereby losing their trust. This article focused on understanding the relationship of news sources with audiences of Balochistan by examining which news sources people in Balochistan use most often to be well-informed about their issues. This study used the qualitative method and conducted 18 interviews of key informants who belonged to diverse professions with at least 15 years of experience. The findings of this study conclude that the participants primarily rely on Haal Ehwaal (human-to-human interaction) to become well-informed about issues in Balochistan because they trust it the most. Participants treated two local newspapers as the second, and social media platforms as their third sources of news. The results of this study may help news media groups in Pakistan in improving their relationships with viewers in Balochistan by giving them equal representation in reporting.</p> Jan Muhammad Awan Bt Ismail Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 20 1 240 257 The Contribution of the Ancient Kirat Civilization in Nepal and its Consequences of Decline <p>Nepal is a multi-lingual, multi-religious, and multi-cultural South Asian mountain country. The source of its civilization is the Kirat dynasty and the sacred book or scripture of the Kirat religion: ‘Mundum’, which had been founded by the indigenous Kirat people and had rich social and cultural values. Kirat is a collective term for the indigenous people of Nepal. Kirat Dynasty had long ruled the country and left a rich legacy; this includes equal treatment of all ethnic groups, religions, and members of both sexes to maintain the spirit of social harmony. In the late period of the Kirat Dynasty, the Indian Brahmans in the north introduced caste discrimination and oppression of the Dalits and so- called untouchables, forced the mountain people to convert to Hinduism and upgrading Khasa to the national language of Nepal. The language and religious cultures of about 60 indigenous peoples have disappeared from history during this process. Kirat religion also tended to decline. It is the 21st century, but Nepal still has hidden caste and gender discrimination. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify that the historical narrative of Gopal as the source of Nepali civilization in mainstream academic circles today has distorted due to the lack of information about the ancient and original Kirat civilization. The real context of literature and history of Nepal is still obscured. Based on the oral history and social memory of the mountain peoples, this paper presents the characteristics of ancient Kirat civilization and religion, reveals the status of its creation and carrying heave and the country's prosperity is closely related, and improves the social and cultural status of the indigenous people, ensuring the fair inheritance of cultures of all ethnic groups is the only way for sustainable development.</p> Gyanu Maya Rai Yang Zhuhui Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-11-10 2023-11-10 20 1 114 125 Unlocking the Employment Potential of Foreign Direct Investment and Challenges in Local Workforce Integration in Tanzania: A Case Study of Kibaha District <p>This study determined the contribution of FDI in creating employment opportunities in Kibaha district, Coast Region -Tanzania. Both probability and non-probability sampling were used to obtain 84 respondents for survey and 8 key informants for in-depth interviews. Quantitative data were analyzed through SPSS whereas qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. Findings indicate that FDI play a great contribution or significant role in creating employment opportunities in Tanzania. From the findings, 58.3% of respondents shows that FDI provides employment on a large scale; 33.3% shows that FDI contributes employment on an average or moderate scale, and the remaining 8.4% shows it contributes on a small scale. Furthermore, the results elucidate various type of employment opportunities offered by FDI which are direct and indirect involvement. Under direct employments there were permanent base contract (50%); casual labor (25%) and temporary basis/seasonal employment (25%). Indirect employment was also mode of employment on FDI where by cover those citizens who were employed by respective FDIs as a result of their presence near the area. Includes motorcyclists who transport first-category workers and employees, as well as food service providers. Several challenges that hinder FDI in employing Local citizens namely were also determined which were; Language barriers; lack of enough skilled labor; lack of trust among local employees and job dropout without prior information from the employee. As the study has been acknowledged that FDI have critical significant contribution on creating employments opportunity in Tanzania. </p> <p>The number of youths who are not employed in both government and local private sectors can be employed in FDI firms Therefore, a need for encouraging private sectors especial FDI to invest in the country is very important. Good environment for attracting FDI in the country is highly needed.</p> Philoteo Akitanda Felician Mutasa Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-11-26 2023-11-26 20 1 147 156 Trading Narratives: Oral Histories of the Binidayan Market Hub <p>This study explores the Trading Narratives of the people of Binidayan. The researchers used oral historical methodology to capture the rich narratives and lived experiences of individuals who have witnessed the evolution and growth of the Binidayan Market Hub. By engaging with local residents, traders, and other relevant stakeholders, the study seeks to unearth valuable insights and personal accounts that might otherwise remain untold. This methodology provides a unique lens through which to explore the multifaceted nature of the market hub and its impact on the community. In addition, this study sheds light on the origins of the Padian in Binidayan, tracing its development and transformation over time. Through a historical analysis of the trading areas, it seeks to uncover the factors that contributed to the establishment of the market hub. By examining the economic and social contexts, the study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of how the Padian emerged as a central hub for economic activities and social interactions in the province of Lanao del Sur.</p> <p> Moreover, the research investigates the dynamics of local market system in the context of the Binidayan Market Hub. It explores the various stakeholders involved, including traders, farmers, artisans, and consumers, and examines their roles and interactions within the market system. The study analyzes the patterns of trade, commodities exchanged, and the mechanisms of pricing and exchange that governed the market transactions. By examining the social and economic relationships within the market system, the research elucidates the complex network of connections that sustained the Padian as a thriving economic center.Furthermore, this study highlights the multifaceted contributions of the Padian to the municipality and its people. It investigates the economic impact of the market hub, including its role in generating employment opportunities, supporting local entrepreneurship, and facilitating trade networks. Additionally, it explores the social significance of the Padian, such as its role in fostering cultural exchange, community cohesion, and social interactions. The research also examines the ways in which the market hub has contributed to the overall development and well-being of the municipality and its people.</p> Asnaidah Sarip Raihan A. Yusoph Ardin J. Odoy Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-11-26 2023-11-26 20 1 157 171 Unveiling the Past: Delving into the Local History of Mati City, Davao Oriental, Philippines <p>This study delves into the local history of Mati, tracing its evolution from a humble municipality to a thriving city in Davao Oriental. A significant aspect of this investigation lies in its implications for the national government. A focal point of the investigation is the historical background of Mati during various colonial eras, notably under Spanish, American, and Japanese rule. The Spanish presence in Mati dates back to the 16th century when St. Francis Xavier visited the region, specifically the barangay known as <em>Kabuaya</em> or <em>Cabuaya</em>. However, immediate settlement attempts were hampered by the threat posed by the Moros. It was only after the defeat of Moro ruler Datu Bago by Spanish conquistador Don Jose Oyanguren during the 17th century that Mati officially became a regular town or pueblo, marking the end of the Moro influence in the Davao territory. The American colonial era significantly influenced Mati's political and economic landscape. In 1903, under Organic Act No. 21, Mati was established as a regular municipality, bringing with it a new governmental system. The Americans, exercising control over politics and the economy, altered landownership, reducing native landowners to tenants. During World War II, Mati, like much of the Philippines, fell under Japanese occupation. Interestingly, despite their presence, there are no recorded reports of Japanese atrocities in Mati. Post-war, the Japanese influence dwindled. After enduring the successive waves of colonization, Mati achieved city status in 2007, a process marked by challenges. Its journey to cityhood was fraught with setbacks, losing and regaining city status multiple times. In 2011, the Supreme Court's ruling solidified Mati's cityhood, bringing forth new governance opportunities and challenges. The local populace anticipates improved services and employment prospects under the city's administration. Further, this study employs a meticulous descriptive historical methodology, utilizing primary sources and key informant interviews. It integrates both external and internal analysis of available data.</p> Ardin Odoy Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-11-29 2023-11-29 20 1 172 189 An Assessment on Home Factors That Influences Teenage Pregnancy and Possible Strategies to Address the Problem Among Girls in Public Secondary Schools in Temeke Municipal Council <p>This paper sought to examine the relationship between home factors that influences teenage pregnancy and suggesting possible strategies to address the problem among the girls in public secondary school in Temeke Municipality. The study was guided by post-positivist philosophical assumptions where causes determine effects or outcomes. Post-positivists hold a deterministic philosophy in which causes (probably) determine effects or outcomes. About 440 respondents from eleven (11) public secondary schools were used during the data collection. A quantitative approach was used, and data were collected by structured questionnaires and analyzed using International Business Machines Statistical Package for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS) software. The correlation analysis showed that P-value was (0.036) at a 0.05-degree level of freedom which means that the P-value obtained is less than 0.05, this indicates that there was a relationship between home factors and teenage pregnancy. Descriptive statistics analysis of data revealed that the majority of the respondents indicate that, there is a relationship between home factors and teenage pregnancy among the girls in public secondary school in Temeke Municipal Council. The study concludes that home factors were the major determinant factors for teenage pregnancy among the girls in public schools in Temeke Municipal Council. The study recommends that to rescue a large number of teenage pregnancies every year, the Government, private sectors, and mass media owners should dramatize teenage pregnancy and its effects through the usage of audio-visual aids such as DVDs that portray the effects of teenage pregnancy.</p> Juma Chande Saumu Mushi Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2024-02-05 2024-02-05 20 1 258 282