International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends <p style="text-align: justify;">The International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends (IJSSCFRT) is an open access International Journal for scientists and researchers to publish their scientific papers in Social Sciences related fields. IJSSCFRT plays its role as a refereed international journal to publish research results conducted by researchers.</p> <p>This journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process within 4 weeks. For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="">About the Journal</a> page. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">All IJSSCFRT published papers in Social Sciences will be available for scientific readers for free; no fees are required to download published papers in this international journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"> </p> Mohammad Nassar for Researches (MNFR) en-US International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2790-4008 <p>Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the<a title="Copyright_Notice" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> following terms.</a></p> Cornrow: A Medium for Communicating Escape Strategies during the Transatlantic Slave Trade Era: Evidences from Elmina Castle and Centre for National Culture in Kumasi <p>Globally, it is amazing how power is attached to hair in various cultures. Hairstyles and shapes are definitive social markers used in determining, among other things ethnicity, religion, and age in Africa. In Ghana, most communities, over the years, from generation to generation have used indigenous hairstyles to symbolise and conserve their traditional socio-cultural beliefs and practices. Hence, the interpretation of art in connection to indigenous hairstyles cannot be underestimated by every culture. However, many people seem to be ignorant about the role that the cornrow hairstyle played during the transatlantic slave trade period. People appear to focus more on the beauty and the aesthetic qualities of the cornrow. The research design used was qualitative. So, descriptive and content analyses were used to analyse the data collected from the participants.</p> <p>These five participants (i.e., one indigenous hairstylist, two directors of the Centre for National Culture in Kumasi, and two curators of Elmina Castle) were purposively selected. In-depth interviews were used to solicit data from them. The findings of the research revealed the origin of the cornrow, and how the Akans come into contact with it. Again, the study uncovered the role that Cornrow played in liberating some Africans from slavery. Based on the conclusion, recommendations about revisiting African roots (to learn and adopt some of its indigenous practices) were suggested.</p> Bernice Quampah Edward Owusu Victoria N.F.A. Adu Nana Agyemang Opoku Samuel Akyeremfo Augustine J. Ahiabor Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-05-13 2023-05-13 18 1 127 143 An Analysis of the Impact of Broadcasting Television: Introduction of Personalised Content Using Streaming Video: With Reference to Indian Society <p>Every decade has demonstrated the increase in the impact of broadcasting television. The introduction of personalised content using streaming video has, however, been on the increase for the last five years. And the rate of increase in its impact is more overwhelming than what the general television has achieved over many decades. Netflix has indeed been a giant in personalised streaming videos. This has also piqued the interest of other platforms that have now started streaming personalised videos. The world has evolved into a global village where personalised content in streaming has now overwhelmed the conventional content of the broadcast. This paper reviews the impact created by personalised content through streaming, especially in the last five years. The paper also tries to highlight how streaming videos have overtaken the conventional broadcast to create a new order of the day. The highlight also lays emphasis on personalisation, its classifications, viewer access choices, easy access to streaming, personalised recommendations and all other aspects that have transformed the landscape of streaming.</p> Darshitha Diyanath Samarakoon Md Gapar Md Johar Ali Khatibi Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-05-22 2023-05-22 18 1 226 236 Inclusion of Learners With Disabilities in Higher Education: An Investigation of the Enrollment of Learners with Disability in Higher Education in Malawi <p>Vision 2063’s central focus is on the creation of “<em>an inclusively wealthy and self-reliant nation” </em>to achieve the Malawi we want. Strategically pillar number 5 of human capital development emphasizes the need for inclusive education accommodating all disadvantaged groups including but not limited to those with disability. Therefore, providing equal access and participation to all in higher education is a catalyst to an economically empowered nation since tertiary education provides the necessary empowerment for human, social and economic empowerment. Nevertheless, the literature indicates persistent multiple challenges affecting learners with disabilities leading to school dropout or exclusion from school. A record of a one percent admission rate to higher education institutions indicates a restraint from attaining education that provides empowerment to individuals and strategic placement to the lower ladder in society.</p> <p>Hence, the need to investigate the enrollment of learners with disability in higher education as previous studies have mostly focused on primary and secondary school sectors and hence the need to provide a higher education perspective. Mixed methods were employed using a survey questionnaire and in-depth interviews to collect data from 125 participants who were stakeholders in higher education. The results of the study revealed that there was a low enrollment of learners with disability in institutions of higher learning which reflects a systematic exclusion that creates a social gap between those with disabilities and the rest of society. The exclusion compromises the national and continental goal of participatory creating economically empowered Malawian and African societies.</p> Emily Grace Chiumia Mwale Copyright (c) 2023 International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA) 2023-03-26 2023-03-26 18 1 43 48 Psychosocial Environmental Disruption Among Public Elementary Schools in Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, Philippines <p>Education is life and the school puts life in it. However, the school environment all over the world has been confronted by tremendous factors such as pandemic, calamities, conflicts, stress, diversities and other challenges which need to be addressed by authorities concerned. Psychosocial environmental disruption in education is one of the vital issues that need to be taken into consideration since it may adversely affect the teaching and learning processes and the schools’ human and material resources. This study investigated the psychosocial environmental disruption among selected public elementary schools in the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao in terms of interpersonal, economic, and psychological factors utilizing a descriptive quantitative research design to the 149 respondents comprising of 31 school heads and 118 public elementary school teachers using purposive sampling method. Data generated from the respondents were computed through SPSS 18.0 and mean values were analyzed and interpreted using descriptive analysis. Findings of the study revealed that the extent of psychosocial environmental disruptions of schools relative to interpersonal (3.36), economic (3.28), and psychological (3.09) is oftentimes manifested.</p> <p>When interpersonal school disruptions exist, the economic and psychological disruptions among schools likewise occur. Strengthening collaboration between and among the schools’ stakeholders are indispensable to make the school environment conducive for learning that would contribute to quality education.</p> Dr. Norhayda M. Mangigin Dr. Joanie T. Haramain Copyright (c) 2023 International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA) 2023-03-11 2023-03-11 18 1 10 32 The Nexus between Non-oil Sector and Balance of Payment Equilibrium in Nigeria <p>This study investigates the link between the balance of payment equilibrium in Nigeria and the non-oil industry of Nigeria using yearly time series data from 1970 to 2021. The results back up the ARDL Wald test analysis's conclusion that there is a long-term relationship between Nigeria's non-oil economy and the equilibrium balance of payments. The paper was anchored on the absorption theory of balance of payment and uses the Autoregressive Distributive Lag approach to co-integration and the Error Correction Model to assess the long-term relationship between each of the sectors and the balance of payment equilibrium in Nigeria. The estimated coefficients of the long-run relationship confirm a negative long-run relationship for the balance of payments equilibrium, manufacturing exports, exchange rate, real domestic interest rate, and US Treasury Bill, while a positive long-run relationship is confirmed for agricultural exports and service exports. . The presence of short-term disequilibrium is shown by the negative value of the ECM coefficient, which the model's set of variables is working to address over the long run. The magnitude of this ECM coefficient shows that over time, the balance of payment equilibrium factors will rectify any imbalance in the non-oil sector's contribution to the balance of payments (BOP) by around 21%. (one year). Corrective progress is frequently made at a slow rate. According to the report, Nigeria's government should utilize all economic resources to their fullest potential in order to develop a robust non-oil industry, which includes a sector of agriculture that is dependent on machinery. Technology-based industrialization must be implemented, and to meet all local demands, a well-organized service sector must be established.</p> Benjamin Olusola Abere Anthony Aziegbemin Ekeoba Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-05-07 2023-05-07 18 1 112 126 Machine Translation: Investigation of the Limits and Potentialities of Machine Translation in Some Concrete Cases <p>The role of automatic translation tools in the globalized market is more and more pervasive, with the potential consequences of errors and mistakes in machine translations. The interest in machine translation has shifted from being a field of work for computer scientists to being more typical of the humanities area of translators and linguists. While machine translation saves time, it is considered incapable of producing high-quality translations. The article details experiments conducted to explore and compare the potential, limitations, and characteristics of some of the most common online machine translators. The experiments showed that human intervention, specifically in the post-editing phase, is necessary to varying degrees depending on the raw text obtained by different automatic translators. The article also discusses the importance of factors such as the cultural context in which the source text originated, the writer's system of thoughts and patterns, and their use of verbal and non-verbal language in language and communication. Possible future developments in the field of machine translation are also hypothesized.</p> Antonella Balena Alessandro Cimino Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-05-30 2023-05-30 18 1 246 257 Black Womanhood in the Digital Age : Persuasive Discourse Analysis <p>This paper sheds light on the digital media landscape where black female media citizens engage in a deeply affective form of “information play” that replicates the enduring practices of testifying and witnessing. In the process of the information play, the audience or witness is just as important as the performer. As I explain, “however passive their role may seem,” those who bear witness to some performance of self are critical to affirming the reality that the testifier seeks to construct through their performance [9]. Thus the confirmation that black women receive from presenting their versions of black womanhood to a community of witnesses is invaluable to their interior sense of self. When their voices are heard and their conceptions of black womanhood are witnessed, black women get the affirmation required to continue performing black womanhood on their own terms</p> Martial Dogou Copyright (c) 2023 International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA) 2023-03-14 2023-03-14 18 1 33 42 Clauses in E-Contracts: A Comparative and Contrastive Forensic Stylistics Analysis of the Terms and Conditions in Digital Applications <p>With the advancement in technology, numerous businesses have shifted to online mode for selling their services and products. All these businesses draft e-contracts in the name of “Terms and Conditions” in order to ensure a secure one-to-one relationship with their customers. These terms and conditions state the obligations and the rights of the owners which must be agreed upon by the end-user in order to get access to the website or application. All these clauses are stated within the domain of law which may or may not be in a language which is customer friendly. The aim of this research is to compare and contrast the legal language of the terms and conditions in two digital applications namely Amazon (International), Alibaba (International) and Daraz (National) and analyze the level of complexity, similarity, difference and ease in the chosen applications.</p> Momal Saleem Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-05-17 2023-05-17 18 1 214 225 Applications of Functional Analysis in the Management of Problem Behaviors and Intervention Strategies <p>This paper reports on the work carried out in a school setting, focusing on a case study of an individual with intellectual disabilities who had significant behavioral challenges. The problematic behavior was operationally defined by describing its form, function, intensity, duration, and frequency. Functional analysis was then conducted, in accordance with the behavioral and psycho-educational literature, by analyzing the relationship between Antecedents, Behavior, and Consequences, in order to predict and control the problem behavior. Once the behavior was defined and the link between A, B, and C was analyzed, it was possible to modify the behavior by intervening in the triggering factors of the antecedent situation, as well as the contingent reinforcement in the consequent event.</p> Professor Carlo Cimino Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-05-17 2023-05-17 18 1 207 213 Are Motivated Employees Happy Employees?: A Review of Indicative Literature <p>Motivation is the foundation of almost all components of organisational productivity. Keeping employees motivated, according to not only literature but also observation, does influence their performance. Studies are conducted year in and year out to cement the theories of motivation all over the world for different fields of knowledge, from Human Resources (HR) to Business Management, among many others. The government of Botswana has been worried about the low level of employee motivation in the public sector. The public and their customers express their lack of satisfaction towards service in all parts of the country, making it a national crisis. The likes of Air Botswana experienced similar issues until privatisation. Botswana Railways is one organisation that has considered a privatisation scheme to improve productivity. A study with relation to Botswana Railways employee motivation is reviewed as part of this paper. This paper looks at the existing literature on employee motivation in relation to Botswana. First, there will be a global perspective on employee motivation and its importance to organisations. Then a study of three existing research papers that looked at employee motivations in Botswana’s organisations will follow. This paper reveals that most employees in Botswana are not satisfied or even the slightest bit happy with their working conditions. Based on Herzberg’s two-factor theory, we can say that both motivators and hygiene factors are lacking. As a result, public employees are less motivated, and the general public frequently complains about the level of services provided with their tax pulas.</p> Kelly Masoto, MBA Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-04-27 2023-04-27 18 1 101 111 Influence of Somali Displaced Refugees on Human Security in Kenya a Case of Dadaab Refugee Camp in Garissa County, Kenya <p>The study sought to investigate influence of Somali displaced refugees on human security in Kenya. A case of Dadaab Refugee Camp, Garissa County, Kenya. The specific objectives for the study included; effectiveness of encampment by Kenyan government, effects of threats to human security, protection policy and contributions of Somali refugees to national security and their effects on human security. The theoretical review has been based on <strong>t</strong>he theory of human security. The literature review examined secondary literature by other authors on forced displacement while the empirical review of the theories will deliver the theoretical perspective of forced displacement. The study used descriptive research design that employed both data collection technique for both qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative design applied to cognitive dynamics like perception, thinking, and consciousness. The geographical location for the research study was in Dadaab Constituency in Garissa County. The study target population consisted of 1800 refugees at Dagahaley in Dadaab refugee camp, IDP’s community leaders and Agency staffs. The researcher considered the use of simple random sampling in selecting the respondents to ensure that every respondent in the sampling frame has a chance of being selected. The study relied upon primary data that was collected from the respondents with the use of research questionnaire. The survey questionnaire being the main research tool, the researcher constructed the study tool to have both closed and open-ended questions. Data analysis was performed on collected data so as to transform it to useable form for purposes of deriving conclusions and as well as making policy recommendations. The data collected was sorted and cleaned for purposes of eliminating inconsistencies which may be found. Descriptive analysis done so as to present the general features of the sample such as mean and standard deviation. Multiple regression model also was put into use to help in determining the existing relationship between dependent and independent study variables. Data presentation is in the form of graphs, charts and tables.</p> <p>Displaced Somali refugees have contributed to impoverishment, thereby putting their human security at a much higher risk in Dadaab Refugee camp, Garissa County. The is a threat to human security in Dadaab refugee camp, influenced by the Somali displaced refugees as they are considered to be hostile, making major parts of the Dadaab refugee camp unsafe for settlement. It can also be concluded by the study that upon implementation of protection policies such as encampment by the Kenyan National Government, a significant effect on the improvements of human security in Dadaab refugee camp is achieved KeyWords: Internationally Displaced Persons; Refugees; Security</p> Halkano Galma Golicha Dr. Adan Jarso Golole Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-04-20 2023-04-20 18 1 90 100 A Correlation Between the Types of Driving Distractions and Number of Accidents Encountered by Public Drivers in Danao City Terminal <p>Inexperienced drivers, in particular, may find it challenging to react in a crash if the brain is distracted when driving. This study determined the relationship between the types of driving distraction and the number of accidents public drivers encounter in the Danao City terminal. This study used descriptive quantitative research with 100 respondents using the survey questionnaire. The data were analyzed using percentage frequency, weighted mean, and Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r). The majority of the respondents have encountered accidents due to over speeding. Based on the result, the public drivers in Danao terminal were not affected by Cognitive driving distraction but were rarely affected by Manual and Visual distraction. This study uncovered that among the public drivers in Danao City, one probable cause of the increase in road accidents is Manual and Visual distraction.</p> Delfa G. Castilla Jamaica Plarisan Rosegen Sarsalejos Kyla Shenna Acaso Angelique Cabiging Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-05-13 2023-05-13 18 1 144 195 Communication Similarities Between Members of a Multi-Narcissistic Family and Individuals in a Laboral Group with Moobing Dynamics <p>This paper analyzes the similarities between mobbing, a dynamics that occurs in work environments, and the interrelationships of siblings in a family nucleus (referred to as Alpha generation), in which most of them are narcissistic. In the Mobbing, the head of a work group, in an institution or company, directs the actions of his subordinates to harass and mistreat another subordinate (the victim). In this dynamics, actions of abuse towards the victim are justified based on the constant repetition of phrases that, although not true, express supposedly negative characteristics of the victim (conflicting, irresponsible, undisciplined, etc.). The subordinates who are more active in harassing and mistreating the victim are privileged by the boss and have benefits in their work activities. To justify these benefits this individual is presented with supposed qualities and behaviors that benefit the work of the group. However, in general, neither the actions and qualifications attributed to the victim, nor those attributed to the preferred workers correspond to the reality. In the Alpha generation, the siblings transmitted the fanciful stories that a narcissistic member generated, and they added new elements that reinforced the idea that the individual in question really was the person he/she claimed to be in his/her stories. In this way, the image that he/she wanted to convey, of being an individual of great value, of having suffered a lot and having been a victim in many different situations, seemed to be consistent with the narratives of his/her siblings and were accepted at their environment. Thus, the Alfa generation siblings produced an image of being, each of them, great persons. On the other hand, within their families, they mistreated and harassed their spouses and their children, in particular, to whom questioned their attitudes. These children were labeled as troublesome and resentful individuals. In the relationship between the narcissistic siblings, the exchange of experiences allowed them to refine their methods to have strict control within their families. In particular, in some family nucleus, the process of assigning roles to their children was refined. In some cases, the narcissist had two golden children, and as in the “Mobbing”, one of them was directed to constantly repress a victim. On the other hand, the image of the narcissistic was of an exemplary mother/father in the neighborhood and even beyond it. Under these conditions, the complexity of the internal dynamics of such a family nucleus became unnoticed to the outside, even for near relatives and neighbors. The term “Group Narrative” is introduced in reference to the stories and communication of the Alpha generation siblings as a clue factor that gave most of them an image of very outstanding persons.</p> Tabatha Lepe Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-05-30 2023-05-30 18 1 237 245 First Shattering the Stereotypes: Feministic Analysis of Saadat Hasan Manto's Hundred Candles Watt Bulb <p>The study aims to shed light on the plight of women of the sub-continent that have been enwrapped in the sturdy duvet of bestial praxises since their genesis. Nobody plucked the courage up to raise voice against feminine liberation, but Manto did, through his dauntless writings, which are relatable in this era as well. Saadat Hassan Manto was a pronounced maestro of Urdu short story writing of twentieth century. He splintered the run of the mill, orthodox conventions through his literary work, imparting unfading deboss on human psyche to swallow an unflinching veracity of his slit-up times stories. The female characters in Manto’s stories are intransigently daring predominantly harlots, making attempts to fracture the well built stereotypes even when they are sufferers of disempowerment and gender alienation. Manto’s predilection towards writing laudatory account on social taboos gained him the stature of one of a kind writer in the history of sub-continent literature. Manto was a staunch believer of humanity and it is next to impossible to loathe his stories’ poignant characters for being governed by puissant iconoclast. The Hundred Watt Bulb is a tale portraying the barbaric disposition of a husband who is in the saddle to obtrude his wife for fornication rather than bestowing her with a bulwark. Manto has iconically simulated savagery based on gender and sexuality. This study purports to traverse Manto in the paradigm of feminism and revolutionary demeanor his characters evinces as a harvest of subjugation.</p> Ayesha Sameen Qaseem Copyright (c) 2023 International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA) 2023-03-09 2023-03-09 18 1 1 9 Public Perception on Wastewater Reuse: A Case Study of Thabazimbi in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province in South Africa <p>Wastewater reuse is significant in extending water supplies, improving water quality, and reducing wastewater discharge to the environment. Reclaiming wastewater through modern wastewater treatment plants is a sustainable strategic water management approach, and yet it is underutilized particularly in southern Africa. The major drawback of wastewater reuse is lack of public acceptance as wastewater reuse is often driven more by public perceptions rather than a scientific risk assessment. This study assesses public perceptions on wastewater reuse in Thabazimbi. The study adopted a qualitative method approach; public perceptions were captured using questionnaires and structured interviews. A sample size of 171 was selected using the convenient sampling method on a diverse community. The results showed that 36% of the respondents are concerned about reusing wastewater because of health reasons. The residents are of the opinion that treated water is not clean enough for drinking. Moreover, residents indicated a lack of trust in the treatment process and local government’s ability to provide clean drinking water. Therefore, these perceptions on using wastewater for domestic purposes may lead to the public rejecting any introduction of wastewater reuse initiatives. Reusing wastewater for activities with minimal personal contact such as irrigation, firefighting are the preferred options.</p> <p>The study concluded that there is a need for wastewater reuse in Thabazimbi and public participation should be implemented by involving all affected stakeholders in the early stages of the project. Five themes were identified as critical to building and maintaining public confidence in water resource management and water reuse decision-making; managing information for all stakeholders; maintaining individual motivation and demonstrating organizational commitment; promoting communication and public dialog; ensuring a fair and sound decision-making process and outcome; and building and maintaining trust. The study produces guidance for water resource professionals with a strategy for assessing the community context and developing a principle-based approach to public outreach, education and participation used to address the public concerns regarding wastewater. </p> <p> </p> Mahlomola phala Mbali Pewa Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-06-01 2023-06-01 18 1 258 270 Correlation between Teachers' and Adolescents' Reporting of Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Kosovar Adolescents aged 11-18 <p><strong>The aim</strong> of the study was to evaluate the correlation between teachers' and adolescents' reporting of emotional and behavioral problems among Kosovar adolescents aged 11-18.</p> <p><strong>The methodology of the study</strong>: The participants in this study were 1727 adolescents ages 11-18 and 140 teachers. From adolesccents 55.4% (N=957) girls and 44.6% (N=770) were boys. Their average age is M=14.67 (DS=2.06), girls M=14.79 (DS=2.08) and boys M=14.52 (DS=2.02). The selection of the sample was done at randomly and the study sample is a stratified sample. Data collection in this study was done through the administration a standardized questionnaires Youth Self Report 11-18 and Teacher's Report 6-18. To analyze the data, the following analyzes were developed: the Cronbach alpha, arithmetic mean (MA), standard deviation (SD), chi-square statistics, t-tests and Pearson's correlation.</p> <p><strong>Results of the study: </strong>adolescents participating in this study showed a prevalence of 6.3% for externalization problems at this age, value from 18.4% for internalization and 10.00% for total problems. Regarding gender, girls showed higher mean values than boys in all other scales, except for externalizing problems. Then such problems were reported more by adolescents from the village than by adolescents from the city. And with increasing age, according to the values presented there is an increase of the arithmetic middle values in almost all the scales presented. The results show strong correlation between reporting of teachers and adolescents themselfs on internalising, externalization, and total problems.</p> Pranvera Jetishi Çollaku Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends 2023-05-17 2023-05-17 18 1 196 206 Spreading of Smog in Punjab Areas of Pakistan Due to Violation of Environmental Laws <p>Smog is combination of words smoke &amp; fog present in the atmosphere and is considered highly toxic for human’s health and can cause diseases like cancer, asthma, throat, skin diseases &amp; even death. Pakistan is 3<sup>rd</sup> in ranking for most premature deaths in the world and a recent study published by the international weekly journal of science ‘Nature’ states that the death rate due to air pollution is about 110,000 per year. Violation of environmental laws, air pollution, IUU urban sprawl and change of climates are the main reasons of smog. Industries, motor vehicles and burning of trash in open air are the major sources to increase in smog. It depletes the ozone layer and susceptibility to ozone injury is influenced by many environmental and plant growth factors. The smog has also become a major reason for road or air accidents. As per WHO reports released on 25 March 2014 at Geneva that only in 2012 around 7 million people died which becomes 1/8<sup>th</sup> of total global deaths due to exposure of air pollution. The Pakistan EPA has developed Air Quality Index (AQI) to check the levels of ozone and other pollutants countrywide, such indexes of air pollution are also available to monitor the ozone layer level worldwide.</p> Dr Muhammad Tahir Shahid Aziz Abdullah Muhammad Khan Muhammad Shahi Copyright (c) 2023 International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA) 2023-04-09 2023-04-09 18 1 74 89 Hidden Beyond the Social Structure: The Lived Experiences of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Nurses with End of Life Care (EoLC) Patients In Qatar, A Phenomenological Study <p>Nurses are at the forefront of healthcare. Providing care, compassion, and comfort to patients and families, especially in end-of-life care, nurses in Qatar are a source of strength for patients and families as they prepare for difficult decisions and painful realities of life. This qualitative study captures the lived experiences of a selected group using phenomenology as the study design following the semi-structured interviews to possess the impact of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses on end-of-life care patients in Qatar. Three major points were identified as they handled end-of-life patients, and these are Psycho-social concerns, Coping Strategies, and Self-Realization. Psycho-social concerns define the experiences of nurses in end-of-life care which in a way impacted their work performance and can be categorized as Emotional Connection, Family Complications, and Effective Communication. Coping strategies are tactics of nurses to manage and deal with stressful situations that will help them feel better and can be achieved through Self-Preservation, Spiritual Conviction, and Positive Perception. Self-realization is the ability to realize and achieve the nurses' highest potential through Radical Confirmation, Life Appreciation, and Professional Progression. The findings of the study show that nurses managing patients receiving end-of-life care presents a variety of challenges. It demonstrates how many nurses’ lives are significantly impacted and understanding how managing altered priorities may also aid these nurses in integrating more successfully into society, particularly in their academic, social, and psychological aspects.</p> Maidie P. Acosta RL MAIE Tara May B. Panzo Ayman A. Abdurasid Angelica Marie M. Butalid Franchescka Mae S. Mangaba Jayson Daryl C. Signio Heba Abdulfatah Gasmala M. Hasan Leandro G. Calunod III Patricia Kristine R. Quillope Tamim G. Moksir Copyright (c) 2023 International Scientific Research and Researchers Association (ISRRA) 2023-04-09 2023-04-09 18 1 49 73