Are Motivated Employees Happy Employees?: A Review of Indicative Literature
Keywords:Employee motivation, Job satisfaction
Motivation is the foundation of almost all components of organisational productivity. Keeping employees motivated, according to not only literature but also observation, does influence their performance. Studies are conducted year in and year out to cement the theories of motivation all over the world for different fields of knowledge, from Human Resources (HR) to Business Management, among many others. The government of Botswana has been worried about the low level of employee motivation in the public sector. The public and their customers express their lack of satisfaction towards service in all parts of the country, making it a national crisis. The likes of Air Botswana experienced similar issues until privatisation. Botswana Railways is one organisation that has considered a privatisation scheme to improve productivity. A study with relation to Botswana Railways employee motivation is reviewed as part of this paper. This paper looks at the existing literature on employee motivation in relation to Botswana. First, there will be a global perspective on employee motivation and its importance to organisations. Then a study of three existing research papers that looked at employee motivations in Botswana’s organisations will follow. This paper reveals that most employees in Botswana are not satisfied or even the slightest bit happy with their working conditions. Based on Herzberg’s two-factor theory, we can say that both motivators and hygiene factors are lacking. As a result, public employees are less motivated, and the general public frequently complains about the level of services provided with their tax pulas.
M. Harris. Human resource management: a practical approach. USA: Harcourt Brace and Company. 1997.
J.R. Taylor. Job satisfaction among High school assistants principals in seven Florida Counties: Graduate theses and Dissertations, 2007.
W. Vandenabeele. Toward a public administration theory of public service motivation. Public Management Review, vol 9 (4), pp 545-556, 2007.
D. Secchi and E. Bardone. Socially Distributed Cognition and Intra-Organizational Bandwagon: Theoretical Framework, Model and Simulation. International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior (PrAcademics Press), vol 16 (4), pp 521-572, 2013.
S. Werner and S. G. Ward. Recent compensation research: An eclectic review. Journal of Human Resource Management Review, vol 14(2), pp 201-227, 2004.
F. K. Ashipaoloye. A Comparative analysis of the organisational culture and employee’s motivation of selected cities in Calabar zone: Basis for employee’s motivation, leadership and innovative management. Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, vol 2(5), pp 54-63, 2014.
C. Ajila and A. Abiola. Influence of rewards on workers performance in an organization. Journal of Social Science, vol 8(1), pp 7-12, 2004.
I. Brooks. Organisational Behaviour: Individuals, Groups and Organisation. Edinburgh, Scotland: Pearson. 2018.
J. Manion. From management to leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 2005.
D.H. Pink. Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York: First Riverhead Trade. 2011.
B. A. Hennessey. The social psychology of creativity. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, vol 47(3), pp 253-271, 2003.
M. A. R. Malik, A. N. Butt and J. N. Choi. Rewards and employee creative performance: Moderating effects of creative self-efficacy, reward importance, and locus of control. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, vol 36(1), pp 59-74, 2015.
A. Kohn. Why incentive plans cannot work. Harvard Business Review, vol 71(5), pp 54-63. 2009.
R. Kreitner and A. Kinick. Organisational Behaviour, McGraw Hill Irwin, New York. 2011.
J.R. Linder. Understanding employee motivation. Journal of Extension, vol 36(3), pp 28–43.1998.
W. Young. Patterns of Adjustment. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2000.
C. Goleman. Primal Leadership: The Hidden Driver of Greatness Performances. Harvard Business School Press. Boston: MA. 1998.
T. Tshukudu . An Evaluation of a Reward Management System used by the Botswana Local Authority: The Case of Gaborone City Council. International. Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) (2020) Volume 50, No 2, pp 124-134 ,2022.
F. Homberg, D. McCarthy and A. Tabvuma. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Public Service Motivation and Job Satisfaction. Public Administration Review, vol 75 (5),pp 711-722. 2015.
J. Latolang. An investigation of employee motivation at Botswana Railways. MBA dissertation. North West University, Mafikeng, SouthAfrica. 2011.
E. Fetogang and L. Monyamane. Job Satisfaction, Work Environment and Work Performance amongst Secondary School Teachers in the Central Region of Botswana Author’s Details. In American Based Research Journal, Vol. 8, 2019.
T. A. Erkilic. A discussion on the application of the Two Factor X and Y theories in Classroom management: American Journal of Scientific Research, vol 3(1), pp 111-116. 2008.
U. Makambe and V. Charles. Organisational Culture and Employee Motivation in a Selected Telecommunications Firm in Botswana: The Moderating Effect of The Reward System. East African Journal of Business and Economics, vol 2(1), pp 95–109. 2020.
S. L. Cunningham. A quantitative Analysis of the factors associated with teacher attrition and perceptions towards job satisfaction: Seton Hall University Dissertations and theses. 2015.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms.