Social Influences of Methamphetamine Abuse Among Youngsters in Mardan


  • Sumbal Student at Department of Sociology Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan KP, Pakistan


drug abuse, stimulants, methamphetamines., drug addiction, abuse, illicit drugs


The present study was conducted to get an idea of methamphetamine drug abuse among young people in Mardan KP, Pakistan. In this study the researcher examines factors affecting ICE/meth drug abuse, the types of ICE/meth drug people use or whether they have received treatment or not. In this study the researcher uses Quantitative research method. The study is cross-sectional in nature. The researcher uses purposive sampling which belongs to the non-probability sampling technique. The researcher collected data from study area through questionnaire. Results show that majority of the respondents were 18-25 years old in which majority of the respondents have used cigarette first before they started taking ICE and most of the respondents were currently using ICE. Most of them were using it more heavy form of ICE. Family and peers appears to have strong influence on young people use of ICE. Respondents reported ICE use for several reasons including fun, curiosity, relaxation and to look cool. Few respondents were willing to receive treatment or have ever received treatment. Further such studies need to be conducted in order to get more information about social influence and how relevant policies can be design.


. AADAC (2006). “Crystal Meth: What You Need to Know.” (ND) Available at Accessed 1/Dec/2019

. Agnew, R. (1989). A longitudinal test of the revised strain theory. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 5(4), 373-387. Accessed 30/Jan/2020

. Ahmed, H., & Hakani, G. (2018). Awareness and use of Methamphetamine (ICE) among the people of Karachi, Pakistan. Accessed 3/Nov/2019

. ALI, M. (2013). Growing Trend of Drug Abuse and Misuse and Its Impact on Society: A Case Study of Hyderabad City (Doctoral dissertation, UNIVERSITY OF SINDH, JAMSHORO, PAKISTAN). Accessed 28/Nov/2019

. Ali.H, and Sadiq.R, (2011). Patterns and Consequences of Drug Abuse Problems at Workplace. Drug Free Nation. Retrieved from Accessed on 7/April/2020

. Allem, J., (2016). How addiction affect your job. [online source] Available at. Accessed 2/March/2020

. AMA, (2015) “Methamphetamine”, Available at. Accessed 16/Nov/2019

. Backer, T. E., Rogers, E. M., & Sopory, P. (1992). Designing health communication campaigns: What works? Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Accessed 1/March/2020

. Benjamin, A., & Chidi, N. (2014). Drug Abuse, Addiction and Dependence. Pharmacology and Therapeutics Available at Accessed 1/Nov/2019

. Booth, A., & Crouter, A. C. (Eds.). (2001). Does it take a village? community effects on children, adolescents, and families. Psychology Press. Accessed 19/Feb/2020

. Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Klebanov, P. K., & Sealand, N. (1993). Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent development? American journal of sociology, 99(2), 353-395. Accessed 20/Feb/2020

. Brown, M. (2013). Familial, social, and individual factors contributing to risk for adolescent substance use. Journal of addiction, 2013. Accessed 20/Feb/2020

. Buxton, J. A., & Dove, N. A. (2008). The burden and management of crystal meth use. Cmaj, 178(12), 1537-1539. Accessed 2/Dec/2019

. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (2005). “Fact Sheet: Methamphetamine Available at Accessed 2/Dec/2019

. Cartier, J., Farabee, D. & Prendergast, M.L. (2006), Methamphetamine use, self-reported violent crime, and recidivism among offenders in California who abuse substances’, journal of interpersonal violence, vol.21, and pp.435-445. Accessed 23/Jan/2020

. Colfax, G., Santos, G. M., Chu, P., Vietinghoff, E., Pluddemann, A., Kumar, S., & Hart, C. (2010). Amphetamine-group substances and HIV. The Lancet, 376(9739), 458-474. Accessed 23/Jan/2020

. Commonwealth of Australia. Alcohol and Other Drugs: A Handbook for Health Professionals. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, 2004, pp.1-319. Web. Retrieved from,$File/aodgp.pdf. Accessed 24/Jan/2020

. Coulton, C. J., & Pandey, S. (1992). Geographic concentration of poverty and risk to children in urban neighborhoods. American Behavioral Scientist, 35(3), 238-257. Accessed 16/Jan/2020

. Crum, R. M., Lillie-Blanton, M., & Anthony, J. C. (1996). Neighborhood environment and opportunity to use cocaine and other drugs in late childhood and early adolescence. Drug and alcohol dependence, 43(3), 155-161. Accessed 31/March/2020

. Degenhardt et. al (2013) – Global burden of disease attributable to illicit drug use and dependence: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet; Volume 382, Issue 9904, P1564-1574, November 09, 2013. Accessed 13/Jan/2020

. Degenhardt L, Mathers B, Guarinieri M et al. (2010). Meth/amphetamine use and associated HIV: implications for global policy and public health. International Journal of Drug Policy 21:347-358. Accessed 8/Jan/2020

. Department of Health & Human Services. Alcohol and Drug Abuse and Addiction, 2011, pp.1-20. Avaible at. Accessed 12/Dec/2019

. Drug Free World Organization, (n.d.). “The Truth About Crystal Meth” retrieved from [online source] Accessed 11/Feb/2020

. Drug Policy Alliance. (2016). Methamphetamine Facts. Available at. Accessed 11/Feb/2020

. Elliott, D. S., Wilson, W. J., Huizinga, D., Sampson, R. J., Elliott, A., & Rankin, B. (1996). The effects of neighborhood disadvantage on adolescent development. Journal of research in crime and delinquency, 33(4), 389-426. Accessed 10/March/2020

. Flay, B. R. (1987). Mass media and smoking cessation: A critical review. American Journal of Public Health, 77(2), 153–160. Accessed 10/March/2020

. Flay, B. R., & Sobel, J. L. (1983). The role of mass media in preventing adolescent substance abuse. NIDA Research Monograph 47. In T. J. Glynn, C. G. Leukefeld, & J. P. Ludford (Eds.), Preventing adolescent drug abuse: Intervention strategies (pp. 5–35). Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Accessed 10/March/2020

. Galicio, H. (2001). Drug abuse in Kenya in Kenya, Nairobi: Uzima Press, Nairobi. Accessed 12/Nov/2019

. Gikonyo, M. W. (2005). Drug abuser and parental knowledge on factors predisposing the youth to drugs and substance abuse in Nairobi. (Unpublished thesis). Department of Public Health, Kenyatta University. Accessed 6/Nov/2019

. Gorman, M. C., Orme, K. S., Nguyen, N. T., Kent 3rd, E. J., & Caughey, A. B. (2014). Outcomes in pregnancies complicated by methamphetamine use. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 211(4), 429.e1-7 1p.doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.06.005. Accessed 2/Nov/2019

. Hart CL, Marvin CB, Silver R, Smith EE (2012) Is cognitive functioning impaired in methamphetamine users? A critical review. Neuropsychopharmacology 37, 586-608. Accessed 21/Nov/2019

. Hilliard, J. (2019). The influence of social media on teen drug use. Addiction center (online source) Available at. Accessed 2/Feb/2020

. Iqbal, Z. (2008). Demographic Distribution of Drugs Dependence and Health Awareness in Pakistan. Rawal Medical Journal, 33(2), 211-213 Accessed on 8/April/2020

. Jobe-Armstrong, M. (2005). A Community Guide, Strategies and Interventions for Dealing with Crystal Methamphetamine and Other Emerging Drug Trends. Methamphetamine Task Group. Accessed 9/Dec/2019

. Jorge, K. O., Ferreira, R. C., Kawachi, I., Zarzar, P. M., & Pordeus, I. A. (2018). Peer group influence and illicit drug use among adolescent students in Brazil: a cross-sectional study. Cadernos de saude publica, 34(3). Accessed 10/March/2020

. Juergens, J. (2019). Illicit Drug Addiction and Abuse. Addiction Center [online source] available at. Accessed at 2. April.2020

. Kiambuthi, K. N. (2005). Factors contributing to drug abuse in some selected public schools of Kiambu District. (Unpublished M.Ed. thesis). Department of Education, Kenyatta University. Accessed 19/Dec/2019

. Kirkpatrick, M. G., Gunderson, E. W., Johanson, C. E., Levin, F. R., Foltin, R. W., & Hart, C. L. (2012). Comparison of intranasal methamphetamine and d‐amphetamine self‐administration by humans. Addiction, 107(4), 783-791. Accessed 27/Dec/2019

. Lambert, S. F., Brown, T. L., Phillips, C. M., & Ialongo, N. S. (2004). The relationship between perceptions of neighborhood characteristics and substance use among urban African American adolescents. American journal of community psychology, 34(3-4), 205. Accessed 27/March/2020

. Lo, L. (2009). Familial and socioeconomic influences on substance abuse: An ecological model. The University of Minnesota Undergraduate Journal of Psychology, 2, 5-10. Accessed on 6/April/2020

. Loke, A. Y., & Mak, Y. W. (2013). Family process and peer influences on substance use by adolescents. International journal of environmental research and public health, 10(9), 3868-3885. Accessed 27/March/2020

. Masood, S., & Us Sahar, N. (2014). An exploratory research on the role of family in youth's drug addiction. Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine: An Open Access Journal, 2(1), 820-832. Accessed 28/March/2020

. Maxwell, J. C., Maxwell, J. C., Rutkowski, B. A., Maxwell, J. C., & Rutkowski, B. A. (2008). The prevalence of methamphetamine and amphetamine abuse in North America: a review of the indicators, 1992–2007. Drug and alcohol review, 27(3), 229-235. Accessed 30/Dec/2019

. Maxwell, J.C. (2014). A new survey of methamphetamine users in treatment: who they are, why they like “meth,” and why they need additional services. Substance Use & Misuse, 49, 639–44. Accessed 30/Dec/2019

. McGuinness, T. M., Pollack, D. (2008). Parental Methamphetamine Abuse and Children. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 22(3), 152-158. doi: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2007.04.009. Accessed 2/Dec/2019

. Merete, O., Merete, N. and Ann-Marie, N. A. (2008, July 1). Childhood social environment and risk of drug and alcohol abuse in a cohort of Danish men born in 1953 Mortality, years of potential life costs and productivity losses United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Accessed on 6/April/2020

. Ministry of Narcotics Control, Islamabad. (2011–2012). Yearbook 2012. Retrieved from Accessed 30/Nov/2019

. Mohasoa, I. P. (2010). Substance abuse among male adolescents (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Africa). Accessed 11/Jan/2020

. Muchiri, J. K. (2005). Factors influencing the prevalent and correlate of drug abuse by students at secondary schools in Gatundu Division, Thika District, Kenya. (Unpublished thesis). Department of Education, Kenyatta University. Accessed 10/Jan/2020

. NACADA. (2004). Youth in peril: Alcohol and drug abuse in Kenya. Final national baseline survey in substance abuse in Kenya, Nairobi, pp. 2-36. Accessed 7/Jan/2020

. NACADA. (2007). Rapid situation assessment of drug and substance abuse in Kenya. Accessed 2/March/2020

. Naskar N. N., Roy, M. and Bhattacharya, S. K. (2004). A study of some family-school environmental factors on drug abuse among the undergraduate medical students in Calcutta. India Journal of Community Medicine vol. 29, no. 2. Accessed on 6/April/2020

. National institute on drug abuse “Advancing addiction science”, NIH, Oct-2019 [online available] at Accessed 4/Dec/2019

. National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2019). “Methamphetamine research report”. Available at: Accessed 19/September/2020

. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2012). Methamphetamine. Retrieved from Accessed 4/Dec/2019

. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2016). Methamphetamine (Meth). Retrieved from Accessed 17/Dec/2019

. National Institutes on Drug Abuse, (2017). Health Consequences of Drug Misuse. Available at. Accessed 12/Jan/2020

. National Institutes on Drug Abuse, (2018). Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction. Available at. Accessed 30/Oct/2019

. Neuman, W. L. (2006). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Accessed 4/Jan/2020

. Niaz, U., Siddiqui, S. S., Hassan, H., Ahmed, S., & Akhtar, R. (2005). A survey of psychological correlates of drug abuse in young adults aged 16-24 in Karachi: Identifying ‘high risk’ population to target intervention strategies. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 21(3), 271–277. Accessed 19/Feb/2020

. NIDA, D. (2007). Brains and Behavior: The Science of Addiction. National Institutes of Health Publication, (07-5605). Accessed 11/Nov/2019

. Orifa, N. (2005). Drug abuse and methods of prevention in mixed secondary school, Kiambere District, Kenya. (Unpublished thesis). Department of Education, Kenyatta University. Accessed 11/Nov/2019

. Otieno, A. (2005). Prevalence of drug abuse and factors associated with drug abuse among secondary students in Kisumu pre-urban and urban; (Unpublished thesis). Department of Public Health, Maseno University. Accessed 12/Nov/2019

. Otieno, A. and Ofulla, A. (2009). Drug abuse in Kisumu town, Western Kenya. (Unpublished report). vol. 9 no. 3. Accessed 13/Nov/2019

. Otieno. J, Nyatuoro, (2012). Environmental and demographic factors influencing drug and substance abuse among secondary school students in Kisumu Town East, Kenya Accessed 14/Nov/2019

. Public Health Agency, (2013). “Stimulant drugs Professional guidance”. Online available at. Accessed 2/April/2020

. Quintero, J. V. (2016). Demographic risk factors predicting substance use treatment outcomes. Western Carolina University. Accessed 17/Nov/2019

. Radfar, S. R., & Rawson, R. A. (2014). Current research on methamphetamine: epidemiology, medical and psychiatric effects, treatment, and harm reduction efforts. Addiction & health, 6(3-4), 146. Accessed 2/April/2020

. Radfar, S. R., & Rawson, R. A. (2014). Current research on methamphetamine: epidemiology, medical and psychiatric effects, treatment, and harm reduction efforts. Addiction & health, 6(3-4), 146.

. Raiker, N., Aouthmany, M., & Ezra, N. (2016). Dermatologic signs and symptoms of substance abuse. J Clin Exp Dermatol Res, 7, 337. Available at. Accessed 3/Jan/2020

. Reed, M. D., & Rountree, P. W. (1997). Peer pressure and adolescent substance use. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 13(2), 143-180. Accessed 12/Feb/2020

. Renes, S. L., & Strange, A. T. (2009). Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities. Journal of School Counselling, 7(41), n41. Accessed 11/Nov/2020

. Renzoni, C, (2020). How social media impact teens. The recovery Village (online source). Available at. Accessed 13/Feb/2020

. Rice, R. E., & Atkin, C. K. (Eds., 1989). Public communication campaigns (2nd ed.) Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Accessed 3/Dec/2019

. Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2019). Drug Use. Our World in Data. [online source] Available at. '' Accessed 3/Dec/2019

. Rogers, E. M., & Storey, J. D. (1987). Communication campaigns. In C. R. Berger & S. H. Chaffee (Eds.), Handbook of communication science (pp. 817–846). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Accessed 8/Dec/2019

. ROYAN, R., & SATHAR, Z. A. (2013). Overview: The population of Pakistan today. Population Council Book Series, 1(1), 3-11. Accessed 11/March/2020

. Saeed, A. (2017). “Kp Anti Narcotic Force ANF”. [Online source] Available at. Accessed at 23/Dec/2019

. Sagar, S. (2019). “Article Drug abuse in Pakistan reaches alarming level”. University of Peshawar [online source] Available at. Accessed 23/January/2020

. Sampson, R. J., & Groves, W. B. (1989). Community structure and crime: Testing social-disorganization theory. American journal of sociology, 94(4), 774-802. Accessed 15/March/2020

. Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1999). Systematic social observation of public spaces: A new look at disorder in urban neighborhoods. American journal of sociology, 105(3), 603-651. Accessed 15/March/2020

. Schilling, R. F., & McAlister, A. L. (1990). Preventing drug use in adolescents through media interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58(4), 416. Accessed 19/March/2020

. Schilling, R. F., & McAlister, A. L. (1990). Preventing drug use in adolescents through media interventions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 416–424. Accessed 20/March/2020


. Spooner, C., & Hetherington, K. (2005). Social determinants of drug use. Sydney, Australia: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales. Accessed 10/Dec/2019

. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies (1997). Worker Drug Use and Workplace Policies and Programs. Retrieved from Accessed on 7/April/2020

. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2014). “Behavioral Health Trends in the United States”: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Available at. 2014.pdf. Accessed 28/Jan/2020

. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2017). Results from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Available at: Accessed 17/September/2020

. Sutherland, I. and Paul, W. (2008). Patterns of alcohol, cigarette and illicit. Accessed 11/March/2020

. Tam, C. L., & Foo, Y. C. (2012). Contributory factors of drug abuse and the accessibility of drugs. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health, 4(9), 1621. Accessed 29/March/2020

. The RAND Corporation (2005 and 2009). The economic cost of methamphetamine uses in the United States, 2005.Available at: (link is external). Accessed 18/September/2020

. U.S. Department of Justice (2011) “National Drug Intelligence Center”. National Drug Threat Assessment 2011 Product No. 2011-Q0317-001 Accessed 11/March/2020

. United Nation office for drug control and crime prevention, 2001. Studies on the drugs and crime, global illicit drug trends. Accessed on 8/April/2020

. United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime (2013). World drug report 2013. Vienna: United Nations.Availableat: Accessed 15/Oct/2019

. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, UNODC. (2013). Drug Use in Pakistan, 2013. (Technical Summary Report). Ministry of Narcotics Control: Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Accessed 19/Oct/2019

. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2017a). Retrieved from http:/ Accessed 20/Oct/2019

. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2019). Security and justice. Retrieved from Accessed 15/Jan/2020

. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. World Drug Report, Global Illicit Drug Trends. 2011. Available at Accessed 5/Dec/2019

. UNODC, (1995). “The Social Impact of Drug Abuse”. Available at. Accessed 31/March/2020

. UNODC, (2008) “Illicit Drug trends in Pakistan”. Available at. Accessed 20/Dec/2019

. UNODC, (2013)” Drug use in Pakistan 2013”. Available at. Accessed 20/Dec/2019

. Wallack, L. (1989). Mass communication and health promotion: A critical perspective. In R. E. Rice & C. K. Atkin (Eds.), Public communications campaigns (pp. 353–367). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Accessed 14/ March/2020

. Wambua, S. M. (2002). Analysis of the factors that influence drug abuse among the students in primary teachers’ college in Central Province. (Unpublished M. Ed. thesis). Department of Education, Kenyatta University. Accessed 20/Dec/2019

. Wanjala, E. N. (2006). The causes of drug use among secondary school students in Kenya. A case study of secondary schools in Nairobi. (Unpublished thesis). Department of Education, Nairobi University. Accessed 20/Dec/2019

. West, (2006). “Tobacco control: present and future”. Br Med Bull. 77-78():123-36. Accessed 15/Dec/2019

. WHO, (2001)? Technical report series no. 273. Accessed 15/Dec/2019

. WHO, (2004). Expert committee on drug dependence. Accessed 17/Dec/2019

. Wilson, W. J. (2012). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. University of Chicago Press. Accessed 1/April/2020




How to Cite

Sumbal. (2020). Social Influences of Methamphetamine Abuse Among Youngsters in Mardan. International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends, 6(01), 1–10. Retrieved from