Clauses in E-Contracts: A Comparative and Contrastive Forensic Stylistics Analysis of the Terms and Conditions in Digital Applications


  • Momal Saleem National University of Modern languages, Islamabad(4200), Pakistan


Forensic Stylistics, Digital Appplications, Clauses in E-Contract, Linguistics, Legalese


With the advancement in technology, numerous businesses have shifted to online mode for selling their services and products. All these businesses draft e-contracts in the name of “Terms and Conditions” in order to ensure a secure one-to-one relationship with their customers. These terms and conditions state the obligations and the rights of the owners which must be agreed upon by the end-user in order to get access to the website or application. All these clauses are stated within the domain of law which may or may not be in a language which is customer friendly. The aim of this research is to compare and contrast the legal language of the terms and conditions in two digital applications namely Amazon (International), Alibaba (International) and Daraz (National) and analyze the level of complexity, similarity, difference and ease in the chosen applications.


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How to Cite

Momal Saleem. (2023). Clauses in E-Contracts: A Comparative and Contrastive Forensic Stylistics Analysis of the Terms and Conditions in Digital Applications. International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends, 18(1), 214–225. Retrieved from