The Contribution of the Ancient Kirat Civilization in Nepal and its Consequences of Decline


  • Gyanu Maya Rai Doctoral Student of the Department of Ethnology and Sociology, Minzu University of China, Beijing and 100089, China
  • Yang Zhuhui Professor of the Department of Ethnology and Sociology, Minzu University of China, Beijing and 100089, China


Kirat Civilization, Mundum, Aboriginal, Culture, History, Nepal


Nepal is a multi-lingual, multi-religious, and multi-cultural South Asian mountain country. The source of its civilization is the Kirat dynasty and the sacred book or scripture of the Kirat religion: ‘Mundum’, which had been founded by the indigenous Kirat people and had rich social and cultural values. Kirat is a collective term for the indigenous people of Nepal. Kirat Dynasty had long ruled the country and left a rich legacy; this includes equal treatment of all ethnic groups, religions, and members of both sexes to maintain the spirit of social harmony. In the late period of the Kirat Dynasty, the Indian Brahmans in the north introduced caste discrimination and oppression of the Dalits and so- called untouchables, forced the mountain people to convert to Hinduism and upgrading Khasa to the national language of Nepal. The language and religious cultures of about 60 indigenous peoples have disappeared from history during this process. Kirat religion also tended to decline. It is the 21st century, but Nepal still has hidden caste and gender discrimination. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify that the historical narrative of Gopal as the source of Nepali civilization in mainstream academic circles today has distorted due to the lack of information about the ancient and original Kirat civilization. The real context of literature and history of Nepal is still obscured. Based on the oral history and social memory of the mountain peoples, this paper presents the characteristics of ancient Kirat civilization and religion, reveals the status of its creation and carrying heave and the country's prosperity is closely related, and improves the social and cultural status of the indigenous people, ensuring the fair inheritance of cultures of all ethnic groups is the only way for sustainable development.


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How to Cite

Rai , G. M., & Yang Zhuhui. (2023). The Contribution of the Ancient Kirat Civilization in Nepal and its Consequences of Decline. International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends, 20(1), 114–125. Retrieved from