Bilingualism in Second Language Learning: The Pragmatism of Social References to Improve Interactive Skills in Communication


  • Mariama Soda NDAO


Bilingualism, Pragmatics, Second Language Learning, Interactions, Communication


In most colonized societies, foreign languages hold outstanding positions in education, whereas are distinct from indigenous languages. So, when learning requires a language different from the learners' mother tongue, adopting instructional techniques becomes useful to facilitate communication. As a teacher of bilingual learners in high school, experience has shown that communication is challenging in second language learning. This enables us to adapt pragmatic communication, between education issues and social realities, leading to comprehensive thematics for the collective participation of learners. Using the method of data collected naturally within the communication group, examples that inspire interactive communication strategies are underlined with the data. The objectives are mainly to widen communication skills in second language learning and promote local languages’ understanding academically as foreign languages. Further, these learning skills would allow learners to get open to foreign languages through their natives’.


Goethe, Johann Wolfgang.Von (1833). Maximen und Reflexionen. Hg. von Helmut Koopmann. München (2006).

Bloomfield, Leonard. (1933). « Speech communities ». Language. pp. 42-56.

De La Fontaine, J. Coste. P. & Sébastien-Roch-Nicolas Chamfort. (1946). Les Fables de la Fontaine. « Éditions Filmostat » - In Fine éditions d'art ( (1668). (1694).

Weinreich, Uriel. (1957). Functional aspects of Indian bilingualism. Word. Vol. 13, no 2. pp. 203-233.

Craik, Fergus IM, & Endel Tulving. (1975). Depth of Processing and the Retention of Words in Episodic. (Online Article). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 1975, Vol. 104, No. 3, pp.268-294.

Leontiev, A. A. (1979). "Utterance as the subject of Linguistics, Psycholinguistics and Communication Theory." Text Syntax. –M.: Nauka. pp.18-36.

Donal Cruise, O'Brien. (1979). « Langues et nationalité au Sénégal : l'enjeu politique de la wolofisation ». Année africaine. pp. 319-335

Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. (1981). Bilingualism or not: The education of minorities. Vol. 7. Multilingual Matters, p 217.

Amy, Tsui Bik-may. (1985). "Analyzing input and interaction in second language classrooms." RELC Journal. (Online article). pp. 8-30.

Skinner, B. F. (1988). The selection of behavior: The operant behaviorism of BF Skinner: Comments and consequences. CUP Archive.

Grice. Paul. (1989). Studies in the Way of Words. Harvard University Press.

Bange, Pierre. (1992). À propos de la communication et de l’apprentissage de L2. Acquisition et interaction en langue étrangère. No 1, pp.53-85.

Pica, Teresa. (1994). Research on negotiation. What does it reveal about second‐language learning conditions, processes, and outcomes? Language learning. Vol. 44, no 3. pp. 493-527.

Claude Hagège. (1996). L’enfant aux deux langues. Paris : Éditions Odile Jacob. p.298.

Gass, Susan M. Alison Mackey, & Teresa Pica. (1998). The role of input and interaction in second language acquisition: Introduction to the special issue. Modern Language Journal. pp.299-307.

Cicurel, Francine. (2002). La classe de langue un lieu ordinaire, une interaction complexe. Acquisition et interaction en langue étrangère. No 16, pp.145-164.

Strömqvist, S. (2003). Language acquisition in early childhood. Psycholinguistics: an international handbook. De Gruyter. ISBN, 3-11-011424-0. pp. 790-801.

GASS, Susan, MACKEY, Alison, et ROSS‐FELDMAN, Lauren. (2005). Task‐based interactions in classroom and laboratory settings. « Language learning ». Vol. 55, no 4, pp. 575-611.

Cicurel, Francine. (2011). De l’analyse des interactions en classe de langue à l’agir professoral: une recherche entre linguistique interactionnelle, didactique et théories de l'action. « Pratiques ». Linguistique, littérature, didactique, No 149-150, pp. 41-55.

Shaul, David Leedom. (2014). « Language Acquisition vs. Language Learning. » Linguistic Ideologies of Native American Language Revitalization. Springer, Cham. pp. 23-30.

Chomsky, Noam. (2014). « The minimalist program. MIT Press, Chapter 3, Minimalist Program for Linguistic Theory ». p.153




How to Cite

NDAO, M. S. . (2022). Bilingualism in Second Language Learning: The Pragmatism of Social References to Improve Interactive Skills in Communication. International Journal of Social Sciences: Current and Future Research Trends, 13(1), 104–116. Retrieved from